The Strategic Trader
Detailed Strategy Evaluation

Monthly Archives: November 2011

Simple Profitable Strategy: Part 1 (Design)

In this article series we are going to take what we have learned from RSI, MACD, Bollinger Bands, and Aroon Oscillator to build a simple yet profitable strategy. For validation, the strategy testing period will exclude 1/1/2000-6/1/2001 and 1/1/2011 – present. This will allow us to perform sanity checks in later phases to avoid curve fitting.

The goal is to build a strategy that is still profitable after taking out both slippage and commissions. Since most of our articles to date have dealt with the 5 minute time frame on ES, we will continue using those parameters.

The Setup:

In order to build a strategy, we have to have a place to start. For this strategy, we will start by combining the best aspects of each of the trading methods we have tested thus far. Starting with the most recent Aroon Oscillator method.  We identified AroonOscillator(8) crossing below -80 as possessing a slight edge, so we will put a stick in the ground here.

Initial Results (Pre commission/Slippage):

Profit: +$54,987
PF: 1.20
Max DD: -$4,662
Sharp: .58
Trades: 6925
Win %: 58.51%
Average Trade: +$7.94

 

This is a good start, but far from profitable once commissions and slippage are applied.

Before we move on to filtering out trades or tweaking the exits we need to add more potential “entry conditions”. In this step we go back through all the indicators that showed a slight edge and see if an optimized parameter combination for it improves overall performance.

The main purpose of this phase is to get as many entries as possible while still remaining over our “statically significant” thresholds. Each individual entry criteria does not need to remain above the threshold, but as a whole when used in an if/or combination the strategy needs to at least exceed on percent profitable or pure profit.

  1. Additional Aroon Oscillator Parameter Combinations
    • No additional combinations improved results significantly. AroonOscillator(27) <-99 helped, but not enough to justify inclusion
  2. Cross below Bollinger Lower Band
    • Bollinger(2.5,7) was added to the strategy
  3. MACD cross below signal line
    • MACD(2,12,4) was added to the strategy
  4. RSI Hidden Divergence
    • RSI Hidden Divergence 29,10,4 was added to the strategy
  5. RSI Hidden Divergence
    • RSI Hidden Divergence 14,22,6 was added to the strategy
  6. RSI Hidden Divergence
    • RSI Hidden Divergence 18,6,2 was added to the strategy
  7. Aroon Hidden Divergence
    • Aroon Hidden Divergence 12,17,4 was added to the strategy

Results:

Profit: +$81,925
PF: 1.15
Max DD: -$4,700
Sharp: .59
Trades: 13600
Win %: 57.32%
Average Trade: +$6.02

trading strategy development

Summary:

Several key metrics decreased from the initial entry condition, but this is to be expected. Now we have a basic set of entry conditions providing over 13,000 trades. In the next several articles we will look at different ways of filtering out the non-performing trades, and implement an exit that makes more sense than a static 5 bar exit.

Eventually we will incorporate advanced concepts such as data mining and neural networks to improve the final product.

 


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Trading Methods Using Aroon Oscillator

The Aroon Oscillator is commonly used as a trend following indicator. Meaning buy when trending up, sale when trending down. In this article we will look at the following strategies for trading the Aroon Oscillator:

  1. Buy when aroon oscillator crosses above 0
  2. Buy when aroon oscillator crosses above some value x
  3. Buy when aroon oscillator crosses below 0
  4. Buy when aroon oscillator crosses below some value x

Strategy #1: Buy when aroon oscillator crosses above 0

Almost all parameters result in negative expectancy

Strategy #2: Buy when aroon crosses above some value x

This strategy performs fairly well, as long as x is < 0.  No parameter combination was able to exceed our target thresholds. However, a few came pretty close. The closest one would be AroonOscillator(40) crosses above -99

aroon oscillator strategy 1

 

Strategy #3: Buy when aroon oscillator crosses below 0

Performs better than when crossing above 0, but is not enough of an edge to use in a strategy.

Strategy #4: Buy when aroon oscillator crosses below x

There were several parameter combinations that exceeded both profit and winning % after 5 bars. The best combination was when aroonoscillator(8) crossed below -80

aroon oscillator strategy 2

 

Summary:

Using the aroon oscillator to trade “with the trend”, does not look like a viable strategy. However, buying when aroon oscillator crosses below certain values can yield a small edge. May be useful in filtering out bad trades as we start to build out a strategy.

Source Code:

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Trading Methods Using Bollinger Bands

Bollinger bands consist of 3 lines. A moving average in the middle, an upper band (avg + x standard deviations), and a lower band (avg – x standard deviations). Commonly the upper band is thought of as overbought territory and the lower band oversold. In this article we will explore several uses of Bollinger bands:

  1. Buying when the price crosses below the lower band
  2. Buying when the price crosses above the upper band
  3. Buying when the price crosses back above the lower band
  4. Buying when the price crosses back below the upper band

Test #1: Buy on cross below lower band

This method tested out well. There were a few parameter combinations that narrowly exceeded our profit and percent profitable targets set for 5 bar exits. The best parameter combination was 1.5 standard deviations and 4 for the lookback period. Here is the equity curve achieved:

Test 2: Buy on cross of upper band

This method did not yield a single profitable result.

Test 3: Buy when price crosses back above lower band

This method is similar to test #1 except we wait for confirmation of price turning around by crossing back above the lower band. Common sense would dictate this strategy should perform well. However, the actual results were closer to Test #2 than Test #1.

Test 4: Buy when price crosses back below the upper band

This strategy was unable to exceed our preset thresholds. Attached is the equity curve for the best parameter combination: 2.5 std, 24 period

Summary:

We discovered that buying on oversold bollinger band conditions can be a viable strategy. However, more work is needed to fully exploit this potential edge.

Source Code:

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MACD Part 2: Signal Cross (Long Only)

In this article we will explore the viability of trading the 5 minute ES when the MACD crosses the signal line. The signal line is nothing more than a moving average of the MACD values. To start with, we will test a very common strategy (going long when the current MACD  value crosses above the signal line).


Strategy #1
For the first test, we will enter any trade when the MACD crosses above the signal line.

Results: Exit at 5 Bars
A common theme is starting to emerge. Buying on up moves is generally a losing strategy. Buying when MACD crosses above its signal line and then holding for 5 bars is a pretty bad idea. Not a single optimized parameter set was able to turn a profit in this scenario. Winning percentages were decent, but not above the threshold required to be meaningful.


Strategy #2
Buy when the MACD crosses above the signal line and MACD above the zero line

Results: Exit at 5 Bars
Although we are still buying on an up move, the fact that we are above the zero line appears to make a difference. Based on previous testing results related to the zero line, I did not expect the strategy to do well. However, there were quite a few combinations of parameters that were profitable.  The 4,2,2 parameter combination was even able to (slightly) exceed our percent profitable threshold, but fell short of the overall profit goal.


Strategy #3
Buy when the MACD crosses above the signal line and MACD below the zero line

Results: Exit at 5 Bars
Not surprisingly based on the results from Strategy #2 and Strategy #1, this strategy does not perform very well.


Strategy #4
Buy when the MACD crosses below the signal line

Results: Exit at 5 Bars
Some profitable combinations, but no where near significant.


Strategy #5
Buy when the MACD crosses below the signal line and MACD below zero

Results: Exit at 5 Bars
Once again, we come very close to passing our thresholds on percentage and profit, but fall short.


Strategy #6
Buy when the MACD crosses below the signal line and MACD above zero

Results: Exit at 5 Bars
As logic would dictate, because Test #5 performed well, Test#6 did not do so great.

Summary
MACD signal line crosses mostly reinforce the theme that buying after an up move is a losing strategy. However, strategy 2 had an unexpected result. If you buy on signal line crosses and the MACD is above zero, the strategy performs well. In future tests we will need to examine this behavior more closely.

Source Code:

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